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Researchers recently discovered certain drugs, including one developed to treat Alzheimer’s, stimulate innate self-repair mechanisms

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For dentists, a cavity is a conundrum—in order to save the tooth they must further damage it. Currently, the primary way to treat a cavity is to excavate the decay and the surrounding area before filling the resulting crater with a durable surrogate material such as metal, plastic or glass cement.

But what if instead of drilling holes into teeth and patching them up with synthetic fillers, dentists could coax our pearly whites to regrow themselves? Recently, Paul Sharpe, a bioengineer at King’s College London, and his colleagues discovered a new way to do exactly this in mice. Last year they published a Christian Dior Diorly Suede Pumps Outlet Inexpensive Cheap Sale Footlocker Pay With Paypal YSj6uH
describing their innovative techniques in . And since then they have made even more progress that edges this experimental procedure closer to human clinical trials. If the treatment eventually becomes part of the dentist’s standard tool kit, scientists say it would easily be one of the field’s most important advances in 50 years.

Our teeth get damaged all the time. Most of the injuries they endure are due to everyday wear and tear as well as the activity of microbes in the mouth. These organisms coat the surface of each tooth and feed on meal remnants. As they break down particles of food, some of these microbes produce and secrete acids as a by-product. And that acidity degrades enamel—the tooth’s hard outer layer.

Like skin, teeth can usually repair minor mishaps themselves. When our teeth remain uncleaned for too long, however, acid can eat through the enamel and begin dissolving underlying layers of dense, bony tissue called dentin. When dentin is seriously injured, stem cells located in the tooth's soft, innermost layer—the dental pulp—morph into cells called odontoblasts, which secrete new tissue. (Stem cells are capable of becoming virtually any type of cell.) Yet when the injury is too large or deep, that fresh dentin is not sufficient to restore the tooth. The result is often a cavity.

Sharpe suspected he could dramatically boost teeth’s natural healing ability by mobilizing stem cells in the dental pulp. Earlier research had demonstrated the Wnt signaling pathway —a particular cascade of molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication—is essential for tissue repair and stem cell development in many parts of the body such as the skin, intestines and brain. Sharpe wondered: Could this signaling pathway also be important for self-repair processes in teeth? If so, maybe exposing damaged teeth to drugs that stimulate Wnt signaling would similarly encourage the activity of stem cells in the dental pulp—giving teeth the kind of regenerative superpowers usually seen only in plants, salamanders and starfish.

To test this idea, Sharpe and his fellow researchers drilled holes into the molars of mice, mimicking cavities. They then soaked tiny collagen sponges (which are made from the same protein found in dentin) in various drugs known to stimulate Wnt signaling, including tideglusib, a compound that has been investigated in clinical trials for its potential to treat Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. The scientists then placed these drug-soaked sponges in the drilled mouse molars, sealed them up and left them for four to six weeks. The teeth treated with these drugs produced significantly more dentin than ones untreated or stuffed with an unsoaked sponge or typical dental fillers. In most cases the technique restored the rodents’ pearly whites to their former intact state. “It was essentially a complete repair,” Sharpe says. “You can barely see the joint where the old and new dentin meet. This could eventually be the first routine pharmaceutical treatment in dentistry.”

David Mooney, a professor or bioengineering at Harvard University who has also investigated new ways to heal teeth but was not involved in the study, says he is “very impressed” by these findings. “This is not just scientifically important, but has significant practical advantages," he says. Adam Celiz, an assistant professor of bioengineering at Imperial College London who was also not involved in the recent research, says this is an important advance in the emerging field of regenerative dentistry. “The materials dentists use could soon be revolutionized,” he says.

Any treatment that recruits the body's native stem cells or adds new stems cells to the body, however, poses a risk of uncontrolled tissue growth. Experimental and unregulated stem cell therapies have resulted in brain tumors, for example, as well as Cheap Price In China Sale Choice Gianvito Rossi Patent Leather Sandals Cheap Pick A Best mFR48ChC
. But in this case, Sharpe says, the amounts of drug used are so tiny that the risk of unwanted growth is minimal. Celiz agrees the danger is small but he says rigorous testing in lab animals and clinical trials should be done to rule out potential side effects.

Since publishing their initial study Sharpe and his colleagues have tested their regenerative technique on rats. (Because those rodents have larger teeth than mice, a drilled rat molar better approximates human tooth decay.) The treatment worked just as well on the rats as it had on the mice, Sharpe says, but the data has not yet been published. Now Sharpe’s team is investigating a larger group of candidate drugs in order to determine whether another medication works better than those already tested, and to determine the optimal dose. They are also developing an alternative delivery system that is more amenable to modern dental practices: The chosen drug will be dissolved in a gel that is injected into a cavity and bathed with ultraviolet light to solidify it—a quick and easy procedure similar to one dentists already use to seal and repair teeth.

In order to formally introduce this treatment to modern dentistry, however, the researchers will need to perform clinical trials with human patients. Such work is at least several years away, Sharpe says. But some of the drugs he might consider are already approved for other uses in humans, which he hopes could expedite the process for eventual approval. "A lot of dental treatments are still in the dark ages," Sharpe says. "It's time to move on."

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Was haben Programmiersprachen mit natürlichen Sprachen gemeinsam?

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Gibt es etwas, das Sie schon immer über Sprache wissen wollten? Vielleicht haben wir die Antwort! Forscher vom Max Planck Institut für Psycholinguistik beantworten hier Fragen über Sprache von Menschen, die selber keine Sprachforscher sind. Falls Sie auch eine Frage über Sprache haben, schicken Sie sie uns hier! MPI Forscher schreiben regelmä β ig Antworten auf die uns zugesendeten Fragen und machen diese über die hiesige webpage einsehbar. Besuchen Sie uns wieder, um durch zukünftige Fragen und Antworten mehr über Sprache zu lernen.

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Manche Programmiersprachen lesen sich in der Tat fast wie einfache englische Sätze. Hier ist beispielsweise ein kleines Programm, das in der Programmiersprache geschrieben ist. Es durchsucht eine Liste von Namen und wirft jeden Namen aus, der auch in der Liste "invited_people" ("geladene_Gäste") vorkommt:

Andere Programmiersprachen hingegen sind weit weniger lesbar. Hier ist das selbe Programm noch einmal in der Programmiersprache :

Wie ähnlich oder unterschiedlich sind sich natürliche Sprachen und Programmiersprachen denn nun? Um diese Frage zu beantworten, müssen wir zunächs über einige zentrale Begriffe sprechen, mit denen Sprachwissenschaftler die Struktur natürlicher Sprachen beschreiben. Sonst laufen wir Gefahr uns an oberflächlichen Ähnlichkeiten aufzuhalten.

Zwei der wichtigsten Begriffe in der Sprachwissenschaft sind Semantik und Syntax. Einfach gesagt ist Semantik der sprachwissenschaftliche Fachbegriff für "Bedeutung". Genauer gesagt beinhaltet Semantik sämtliche Informationen, die mit einem Konzept verbunden sind. Das Konzept "schlafen" (dessen Form entweder buchstabiert <s-c-h-l-a-f-e-n> ist oder ausgesprochen [ˈʃla:fn̩]) bezeichne eine Handlung eines Lebewesens und das ist die Sematik dieses Wortes.

Die Syntax andererseits ist die Lehre davon wie Worte unterschiedlicher Art (z.B. Nomen und Verben) miteinander kombiniert werden können. Der Satz "Meine Ideen schlafen" ist ein wohlgeformer deutscher Satz aus Sicht der Syntax, aber die Semantik ist fragwürdig, weil Ideen nicht lebendig sind und daher nicht schlafen können. Semantik und Syntax folgen also beide Gesetzmäßigkeiten, denen zufolge einige Konzepte zusammenpassen und andere nicht. Der Unterschie ist, das Semantik sich auf die Bedeutung bezieht und Syntax auf die Wortart und Wortform (also unterschiedliche Flexionen des selben Begriffs wie Du , das , die Durch) und wie diese Wortformen kombiniert werden können.

Jetzt wissen wir etwas über Semantik und Syntax in natürlichen Sprachen. Wie sieht es mit Programmiersprachen aus? Der Programmierer beginnt mit einer Absicht was sein Code leisten soll. Das könnte man die Semantik oder Bedeutung des Codes nennen. Die Syntax der Programmiersprache verbindet einzelne Code-Schnipsel miteinander. Was in natürlicher Sprache die Worte sind, sind in der Programmiersprache Variablen, Funktionen, Indizes, unterschiedliche Arten von Klammern, usw. Die beiden Code-Beispiele aus und haben also die selbe Bedeutung, aber die Syntax unterscheidet sich (so wie sich die Syntax natürlicher Sprachen wie Deutsch und Japanisch unterscheidet).

Wir haben einige Parallelen im grundlegenden Aufbau von natürlichen Sprachen und Programmiersprachen festgestellt. Aber wie weit kommt man mit dieser Analogie wirklich? Die Form von natürlichen Sprachen ist nicht willkürlich. Sie wird bestimmt durch die anatomischen Gegebenheiten des Menschen (Zunge, Stimmbänder, etc. auf der einen Seite und Gehirn auf der anderen) und dadurch, dass sie zur Kommunikation taugen muss. Programmiersprachen andererseits sind darauf ausgelegt, die Anforderungen einer sogenannten Turing-Maschine zu erfüllen, also in der Lage zu sein, alle Berechnungen, die ein Mensch mit Block und Bleistift durchführen kann, wieder und wieder durchzuführen.

Programmiersprachen sind notwendigerweise in sich geschlossen. Natürliche Sprachen hingegen befinden sich in stetem Wandel und erlauben Überblendungen (z.B. , , , usw.). Programmiersprachen ermöglichen es, lange Listen von Daten einzulesen, zu speichern und in vielen Einzelschritten rasch zu verarbeiten, um schließlich einen Output oder ein Endergebnis zu liefern. Das Wichtige daran ist, dass dies immer auf die selbe Art und Weise geschieht. Natürliche Sprachen müssen ihren Sprechern dagegen Möglichkeiten bereit stellen, sich zu grüßen, Versprechen zu machen, aber auch manchmal vage zu bleiben oder zu lügen. Neue Begriffe und syntaktische Strukturen tauchen unentwegt auf und verschwinden wieder und auch die Bedeutungen bereits vorhandener Wörter befinden sich in einem anhaltenden Wandel. Ein Satz in einer gesprochenen Sprache kann verschiedene Bedeutungen haben. Beispielsweise kann der Satz "Ich habe den Hund mit dem eleskop gesehen" bedeuten, das ich einen Hund durch mein Teleskop gesehen habe oder dass ich einen Hund gesehen habe, der ein Teleskop besitzt. Menschen nutzen Kontext und Weltwissen, um zwischen diesen möglichen Interpretationen zu wählen. Die Grundlage natürlicher Sprachen ist also eine sich ständig wandelnde Kultur, sei es durch Vermischung bestehender Kultur(en) oder durch Schaffung neuer Kultur. Programmiersprachen sind nicht annährend so flexibel. In Prgrammiersprachen muss eine Zeile Code eine einzige Bedeutung haben, so dass der Output mit Sicherheit reproduzierbar ist.

By: Julia Udden, Harald Hammarström and Rick Janssen

Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Tayo Takada Sebastian Sauppe

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The Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics is an institute of the German . Our mission is to undertake basic research into the psychological,social and biological foundations of language. The goal is to understand how our minds and brains process language, how language interacts with other aspects of mind, and how we can learn languages of quite different types.

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